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Differential effects of nitro-PAHs and amino-PAHs on cytokine and chemokine responses in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells

Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) are found in diesel exhaust and air pollution particles. Along with other PAHs, many nitro-PAHs possess mutagenic and carcinogenic properties, but their effects on pro-inflammatory processes and cell death are less known. In the present study we examined the effects of 1-nitropyrene (1-NP), 3-nitrofluoranthene (3-NF) and 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) and their corresponding amino forms, 1-AP, 3-AF and 3-ABA, in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. The effects of the different nitro- and amino-PAHs were compared to the well-characterized PAH benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Expression of 17 cytokine and chemokine genes, measured by real-time PCR, showed that 1-NP and 3-NF induced a completely different cytokine/chemokine gene expression pattern to that of their amino analogues. 1-NP/3-NF-induced responses were dominated by maximum effects on CXCL8 (IL-8) and TNF-α expression, while 1-AP-/3-AF-induced responses were dominated by CCL5 (RANTES) and CXCL10 (IP-10) expression. 3-NBA and 3-ABA induced only marginal cytokine/chemokine responses. However, 3-NBA exposure induced considerable DNA damage resulting in accumulation of cells in S-phase and a marked increase in apoptosis. B[a]P was the only compound to induce expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-regulated genes, such as CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, but did not induce cytokine/chemokine responses in BEAS-2B cells. Importantly, nitro-PAHs and amino-PAHs induced both...

Øvrevik, Johan; Arlt, VM; Øya, E; Nagy, E; Mollerup, Steen Kristen; Phillips, DH; Låg, Marit; Holme, Jørn Andreas
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 242(3): 270–280
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