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The impact of iron status and smoking on blood divalent metal concentrations in Norwegian women in the HUNT2 Study

Low iron (Fe) stores may result in increased absorption of divalent metals, in particular cadmium (Cd). We have previously shown that in non-smoking women participating in the Norwegian HUNT2 cohort study this also included other divalent metals, e.g. manganese (Mn) and cobalt (Co). The diet is the main source of metals in non-smoking individuals, whereas in smoking individuals tobacco smoke contributes significant amounts of Cd and lead (Pb). The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of smoking on the relationship between low iron status and divalent metals. Blood concentrations of the divalent metals Cd, Mn, Co, Pb, copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), determined using an Element 2 sector field mass spectrometer (ICP-MS), were investigated in smoking women of fertile age (range 21–55 years) (n = 267) from the HUNT2 cohort. Among these, 82 were iron-deplete (serum ferritin < 12 μg/L) and 28 had iron deficiency anaemia (serum ferritin < 12 μg/L & Hb < 120 g/L). 150 (56%) women smoked 10 or more cigarettes daily, 101 (38%) had smoked for more than 20 years, and 107 (40%) had smoked for 11–20 years. Results from the smoking population were compared with results from our previous study in...

Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Alexander, Jan; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Borch-Iohnsen, Berit; Ellingsen, Dag G.; Thomassen, Yngvar; Holmen, Jostein; Ydersbond, Trond A.
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 38: 165–173
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