Objective In this study, we examined exposure to workplace bullying as a predictor of registry-based benefit recipiency among workers struggling with work participation due to common mental disorders. Further, we examined if the experience of receiving social support moderated the association between workplace bullying and benefit recipiency. Design Secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial. Patients People struggling with work participation due to common mental disorders (CMD). Methods Study participants (n = 1193) were from a randomized controlled trial (The At Work and Coping trial (AWaC), trial registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01146730), and self-reported CMD as a main obstacle for work participation. Participants were at risk of sickness absence, currently on sickness absence or on long-term benefits. Benefit recipiency indicated sickness absence and/or long-term benefits (i.e., disability pension) at 6-month follow-up. Results Of the 1193 participants, 36% reported exposure to workplace bullying. Workplace bullying was significantly associated with benefit recipiency at 6-month follow-up (OR 1.41, CI 1.11–1.79). Social support did not moderate the association between bullying and benefit recipiency. Conclusions The finding that workplace bullying increases the risk of later benefit recipiency suggest that bullying is a significant obstacle for work participation.