Background: Although both the mother's and father's alleles are present in the offspring, they may not operate at the same level. These parent-of-origin (PoO) effects have not yet been explored on the X chromosome, which motivated us to develop new methods for detecting such effects. Orofacial clefts (OFCs) exhibit sex-specific differences in prevalence and are examples of traits where a search for various types of effects on the X chromosome might be relevant. Materials and Methods: We upgraded our R-package Haplin to enable genome-wide analyses of PoO effects, as well as power simulations for different statistical models. 14,486 X-chromosome SNPs in 1,291 Asian and 1,118 European case-parent triads of isolated OFCs were available from a previous GWAS. For each ethnicity, cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) and cleft palate only (CPO) were analyzed separately using two X-inactivation models and a sliding-window approach to haplotype analysis. In addition, we performed analyses restricted to female offspring. Results: Associations were identified in “Dystrophin” (DMD, Xp21.2-p21.1), “Fibroblast growth factor 13” (FGF13, Xq26.3-q27.1) and “EGF-like domain multiple 6” (EGFL6, Xp22.2), with biologically plausible links to OFCs. Unlike EGFL6, the other associations on chromosomal region Xp22.2 had no apparent connections to OFCs. However, the...

Skare, Øivind; Lie, Rolv T.; Haaland, Øystein Ariansen; Gjerdevik, Miriam; Romanowska, Julia; Gjessing, Håkon K.; Jugessur, Astanand
Frontiers in Genetics 9
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