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Variability of lead in urine and blood in healthy individuals

Vit. artikkel


  • 2022

Background: Lead is a non-essential toxic trace element. Lead in blood (BPb) is the most common biomarker of lead exposure but lead in urine (UPb) has also been used. There is, however, limited data on the variability of UPb in the general population and the association with BPb. Objectives: Our aims were to assess variability of lead in repeated blood and urine samples. The diurnal variation of UPb was also examined as well as associations with BPb. Methods: We established an openly available biobank including 60 healthy non-smoking individuals, 29 men and 31 women, 21–64 years of age (median 31 years), with repeated sampling of blood and urine. Timed urine samples were collected at six fixed time points in two 24 h periods, about one week apart, and adjusted for creatinine and specific gravity (SG). BPb and UPb were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The within- and between-individual variabilities and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs; ratios of the between-individual to total observed variances) were calculated using mixed-effects models. Results: The ICCs for UPb samples were mostly above 0.5, when adjusted for creatinine or SG, and higher for overnight samples compared with daytime samples. The highest ICCs were obtained for...

Sallsten, Gerd; Ellingsen, Dag; Berlinger, Balazs; Weinbruch, Stephan; Barregard, Lars
Environmental Research 212
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