Little is known on the toxicity of nanomaterials in the user phase. Inclusion of nanomaterials in paints is a common nanotechnology application. This study focuses on the toxicity of dusts from sanding of paints containing nanomaterials. We compared the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanomaterials (TiO2NMs) and dusts generated by sanding boards coated with paints with different amounts of two different types of uncoated TiO2NMs (diameters:10.5 nm and 38 nm). Mice were intratracheally instilled with a single dose of 18, 54 and 162 µg of TiO2NMs or 54, 162 and 486 µg of sanding dusts. At 1, 3 and 28 days post-instillation, we evaluated pulmonary inflammation, liver histology and DNA damage in lung and liver. Pulmonary exposure to both pristine TiO2NMs and sanding dusts with different types of TiO2NMs resulted in dose-dependently increased influx of neutrophils into the lung lumen. There was no difference between the sanding dusts from the two paints. For all exposures but not in vehicle controls, mild histological lesions were observed in the liver. Pulmonary exposure to pristine TiO2NMs and paint dusts with TiO2NMs caused similar type of histological lesions in the liver.