Damp indoor environments contaminated with different mold species may contribute to the development and exacerbation of respiratory illnesses. Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to X-ray treated spores and hyphal fragments from pure cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillum chrysogenum, Aspergillus versicolor and Stachybotrys chartarum. Hyphal fragments of A. fumigatus and P. chrysogenum induced expression and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 and the chemokine IL-8, while none of the other hyphal preparations had effects. Hyphal fragments from A. fumigatus and P. chrysogenum also increased the expression of IL-1α, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, but these cytokines were not released. X-ray treated spores had little or no inflammatory potential. Attenuating Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 by blocking antibodies strongly reduced the A. fumigatus and P. chrysogenum hyphae-induced IL-6 and IL-8 release, whereas TLR4 antagonist treatment was without effects. Untreated A. fumigatus spores formed hyphae and triggered expression of pro-inflammatory genes with similarities to the effects of hyphal fragments. In conclusion, while X-ray treated spores induced no pro-inflammatory responses, hyphal fragments of A. fumigatus and P. chrysogenum enhanced a TLR2-dependent expression and release of IL-6 and IL-8.