Vit. artikkel


  • 2018

Introduction: Shotgun pellets containing bismuth (Bi) as substitute for lead (Pb) are increasingly being used due to environmental concerns. Information on toxicokinetics of Bi is lacking for the assessment of humans accidentally shot by Bi-containing shotgun alloy pellets. Methods: Male Wistar rats were exposed to miniature alloy pellets containing Bi, tin (Sn) and minor amounts of Pb by implantation in muscle tissues of the hind legs. Results: The concentrations of Bi in whole blood and urine increased up to 53 weeks after implantation. The highest concentrations of Sn in whole blood were observed three weeks after implantation, then declining to background levels 53 weeks after implantation. Lead in whole blood increased up to 13 weeks of exposure, and declined for the remaining observation period. Bismuth and Sn accumulated mainly in kidney, but also in liver, testicle and brain. Analytical field emission scanning electron microscopy of post-implant pellets showed depletion of Pb towards the pellet surface. Oxygen and chlorine accumulated in Sn rich lamellas in areas next to the pellet surface. The distribution of Bi remained visually unaffected as compared to pre-implant pellets. Conclusion: The concentration of Bi increased during the whole observation period in blood, urine, kidney, brain, testicle and...

Skaug, Vidar; Eilertsen, Einar; Skogstad, Asbjørn; Levy, Finn E. S.; Berlinger, Balazs; Thomassen, Yngvar; Ellingsen, Dag
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 48: 224–232
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