The raw concentration data for the research article entitled “Essential and non-essential trace elements in fish consumed by indigenous peoples of the European Russian Arctic” (Sobolev et al., 2019)  are herein presented. Fifteen fish species were collected in the Nenets Autonomous and Arkhangelsk Regions of the Russian Federation and were analysed for 9 elements (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn). The sampling sites were located in the European parts of the Russian Arctic and sub-Arctic territories. Within these territories, Nenets indigenous peoples commonly catch and consume local fish. Based on questionnaire data, local fish sources constituted ∼ 90% of the total fish consumed by endemic individuals living in these regions. The data summarized in this publication fill a gap in knowledge.