Academic Article


  • 2016

Background: Data are scarce on the association between prenatal/preconception environmental exposure and testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) in offspring. We examined parental occupational exposures to heavy metals and welding fumes in relation to TGCT in offspring in a registry-based case–control study (NORD-TEST Study). Methods: We identified TGCT cases diagnosed at ages 14–49 years in Finland (1988–2012), Norway (1978–2010), and Sweden (1979–2011) through nationwide cancer registries. These cases were individually matched by country and year of birth to controls selected from population registries. Information on parental occupations was retrieved from censuses. From this, we estimated prenatal/preconception exposures of chromium, iron, nickel, lead, and welding fumes (all three countries), and cadmium (Finland only) for each parent using job-exposure matrices specifying prevalence (P) and mean exposure level (L). Exposure indices were calculated as a product of P and L (P × L), and exposure categories were based on P × L or different combinations of P and L. Results: The study comprised 8,112 cases and 26,264 controls. We observed no statistically significant TGCT risk associated with presence of heavy metals/welding fumes (P × L > 0) and no dose-response relationship (Ptrend ≥ 0.32). A statistically significant elevated TGCT risk was found in paternal...

Togawa, Kayo; Le Cornet, Charlotte; Feychting, Maria; Tynes, Tore; Pukkala, Eero; Hansen, Johnni; Olsson, Ann; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Nordby, Karl-Christian; Uuksulainen, Sanni; Wiebert, Pernilla; Woldbæk, Torill; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Fervers, Beatrice; Schüz, Joachim
Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 25(10): 1426–1434
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